Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'platinum' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. (symbol Pt) an element, a heavy, valuable grey/gray metal, often used in making jewellery/jewelry. das Platin, Platin- (also adjective) a. Übersetzung für 'platinum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
Deutsch-Englisch-Wörterbuch(symbol Pt) an element, a heavy, valuable grey/gray metal, often used in making jewellery/jewelry. das Platin, Platin- (also adjective) a. Übersetzung für 'platinum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für platinum im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.
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It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in that it began to be investigated by scientists.
Platinum is used in catalytic converters , laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes , platinum resistance thermometers , dentistry equipment, and jewelry.
Being a heavy metal , it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts ; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.
Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile , and malleable , silver-white metal. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid , but dissolves in hot aqua regia A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids , to form chloroplatinic acid , H 2 PtCl 6.
Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum II compounds tend to adopt electron square planar geometries.
Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid H 2 PtCl 6 : . As a soft acid , platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO ; numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent.
In , Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum catalytic converter.
The most abundant of these is Pt, comprising Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6. Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from to , making the total number of known isotopes Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay.
Platinum is an extremely rare metal,  occurring at a concentration of only 0. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.
Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains , Russia, and it is still mined.
In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides e. Pt,Pd S , tellurides e. PtBiTe , antimonides PdSb , and arsenides e.
PtAs 2 , and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite PtAs 2 , is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario , Canada.
The mine ceased operations in In , chromites were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.
Smaller reserves can be found in the United States,  for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Large platinum deposits are present in the state of Tamil Nadu , India.
Platinum exists in higher abundances on the Moon and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.
Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds.
By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings, indelible ink , plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst.
Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride , gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate ,  which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions.
Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Potassium hexachloroplatinate is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry.
When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum IV chloride and platinum II chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: .
All three reactions are reversible. Platinum II and platinum IV bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen.
Platinum IV oxide , PtO 2 , also known as ' Adams' catalyst ', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide KOH solutions and concentrated acids.
Unlike palladium acetate , platinum II acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate.
Zeise's salt , containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. Dichloro cycloocta-1,5-diene platinum II is a commercially available olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable cod ligands "cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene.
The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin , or cis -diamminedichloroplatinum II is the first of a series of square planar platinum II -containing chemotherapy drugs.
These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA , and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.
Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as BC. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics.
It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.
Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the La Tolita Culture circa BC - AD , but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation.
The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities.
Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.
Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.
In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood,  a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.
In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.
In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.
Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.
Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.
Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.
Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.
Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.
Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.
This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments.
At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize.
This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.
During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.
If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities.
Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.
Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.
Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.
Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum.
One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.
The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.
Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.
It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.
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The subsequent independent Platinum distributor must submit a distributor application and meet all the obligations. Product Return in the Event of Termination by the Distributor An independent distributor may terminate the Platinum distributor agreement at any time without giving reasons by notifying the company in writing.
If the independent distributor has purchased products to place in storage while their distributor contract was still valid, they may return products they have purchased within the last 12 months that are in unblemished condition and re-sellable.
This buyback rule applies only to Platinum products currently on sale, which the independent distributor has purchased from Platinum. Independent distributors who have obtained any materials from someone other than Platinum should understand that the supplier of such materials may have to comply with a buyback agreement, and not Platinum.
Independent Platinum distributors who decide to invest in products that are not sourced from Platinum are advised to include a buyback agreement at the time of purchase of these products.
Platinum is not able to mediate in obtaining such a reimbursement. Independent distributors who cancel their distributor agreement must wait six months before they can become distributors again.
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This may include lists of distributors, genealogical reports, business reports, financial information, manufacturer or supplier information, product information, commission or sales reports or other information, which Platinum designates as confidential.
The distributor confirms by signing this agreement that this information is confidential and is disclosed to them by Platinum as strictly confidential.
The distributor shall treat this information as strictly confidential and not notify, sell or forward it either directly or indirectly to third parties to use nor will they use this information to engage directly or indirectly in competition with Platinum.
Upon expiry, non-renewal or termination of the distributor agreement, the distributor shall return all confidential information to Platinum without delay.
This confidentiality agreement remains in force even after the end of the contractual relationship. Price Changes Platinum reserves the right to change the prices of its products and sales aids by giving reasonable notice.
Should the distributor be made liable under private or public law for a violation of the provisions of the law against unfair competition or provisions under public law such as laws in relation to food, pharmaceuticals and advertising of medicinal products , where the reason for it lies either in properties of the products or in marketing methods specified by the company, the above paragraph applies correspondingly.
In addition, the company shall compensate the distributor for any judicial or administrative penalties imposed on them due to a breach of such regulations.
If the distributor objects to these changes, they have one month from receipt of the notification to object. Objections must be sent to Platinum in writing by registered letter.
In the event that no agreement is reached, the company and the distributor shall terminate their contractual cooperation at the earliest possible termination date.
Only in cases of special urgency will there be a notice period of less than two weeks. You may cancel in writing e.
Please send to: Platinum Health Europe B. Consequences of Withdrawal In the event of cancellation, the benefits received by both parties are to be returned.
Should you already have received goods, but have not been able to return them wholly or partly or only in deteriorated condition, you must compensate us for the value.
This does not apply if the deterioration is due solely to inspecting the goods. You can avoid having to pay compensation if you do not use the items and refrain from doing anything that would adversely affect their value.
All items should be returned at your expense and risk. End of the Cancellation Instructions The cancellation instructions can be handed out on an order form or a receipt or as a separate document.
The customer in question then receives another product in exchange or the full purchase price less shipping costs. Platinum Europe shall compensate the distributor for the returned product as long as customer service receives the following from the distributor within 15 days:.
If a distributor fails to comply with such a request for a refund of the purchase price, they should expect their distributor agreement to be terminated.
If the return is due to a product defect or a wrong delivery, the provisions of the Civil Code apply. Prohibition of Sales on eBay Platinum distributors are prohibited from selling Platinum products either directly or via third parties on eBay, Amazon.
However, Platinum cannot pay any commissions on products that may have been sold but have then been returned in exchange for a refund of the purchase amount.
Waiver of Contractual Rights If Platinum does not insist on strict compliance with contractual regulations which are stipulated in the documents Application and Contract, Mandatory Guidelines, the Bonus Plan and Instructions and Explanations of the System, this does not mean that these contractual provisions, instructions and explanations of the system no longer apply, unless an authorised representative of the company declares in writing that the contractual provision in question, instruction or explanation of the system is waived.
Applicable Law and Jurisdiction The validity, interpretation and fulfilment of this agreement and the jurisdiction responsible for dealing with disputes are determined based on the law of the country in which the respective distributor conducts their business.
If you are a Distributor, you have entered into a business relationship with Platinum Health Europe and are considered a business partner.
We understand that privacy and the security of your personal information is extremely important. Because of that, this policy sets out what we do with your information and what we do to keep it secure.
It also explains where and how we collect your personal information, as well as your rights over any personal information we hold about you.
This policy applies to you if you use or buy our products over the phone, e-mail, post, online or otherwise by using any of our websites or interacting with us on social media.
This policy gives effect to our commitment to protect your personal information and has been adopted by Platinum Health Europe.
Information about the Services that we provide to you including for example, the things we have provided to you, when and where, what you paid, the way you use our products and Services, and so on ;.
Information about any device you have used to access our website, such as your browser and IP address. Your contact details and details of the emails and other electronic communications you receive from us, including whether that communication has been opened and if you have clicked on any links within that communication.
The Company may, from time to time, employ the services of other parties for dealing with matters that may include, but are not limited to, payment processing, delivery of purchased items, search engine facilities, advertising and marketing.
The providers of such services may have access to certain personal Data provided by Users of this Website.
Any Data used by such parties is used only to the extent required by them to perform the services that The Company requests. We may transfer your personal information to other organisations in certain scenarios.
For example:. We would like to tell you about the great offers, ideas, products and services from time to time that we think you might be interested in.
Where you have consented to us doing so, we may do this through the post, by email, text message, online, using social media, push notifications via apps, or by any other electronic means.
We won't send you marketing messages if you tell us not to, but we will still need to send you occasional service-related emails. If you would like us to delete your personal data and remove you from our database, we will delete the personal data we currently hold within six months of your request.
Data security is of great importance to The Company and to protect your Data we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure Data collected via this Website.
The Company reserves the right to change this Policy as we may deem necessary from time to time or as may be required by law.
Any changes will be immediately posted on the Website and you are deemed to have accepted the terms of the Policy on your first use of the Website following the alterations.
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